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The Journal of Geriatric Oncology is an international, multidisciplinary journal focused on advancing research in the pathogenesis, biology, treatment, and survivorship issues of older adults with cancer. The journal covers all aspects of geriatric oncology, from basic scientific research through to clinical research, as well as research that is relevant to education and policy development. This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editors for suitability for the journal. The Editor-in-Chief or Deputy Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
The Journal of Geriatric Oncology publishes original research articles, review articles (including systematic reviews), clinical trials and clinical trial protocols, treatment guidelines, research letters, and letters to the editor which comment on previously published work. Publication types such as Editorials, "Geriatrics for the Oncologist", perspectives, and "How I treat" are generally solicited by or require approval from the Editor-in-Chief. Papers deemed suitable by the Editors are generally sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. Research letters, letters to the editor, and perspectives may only require one review or review by an Editor.
The Journal of Geriatric Oncology is the official journal of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG).
Manuscript categories and guidelines
The Journal of Geriatric Oncology publishes articles in the following categories:
Editorials: Editorials are invited by the Editor-in-Chief. Editorials do not have an abstract or keywords and should be limited to 1,500 words in length. References should be limited to 15 or less. Editorials generally do not include Figures or Tables, but may include one if needed.
Original Research Articles: Original, full-length research papers which have not been published previously may be submitted. Original research papers should include a structured abstract (350 words) and should be divided into sections (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion). They should not exceed 3,500 words in length. All original research must include a statement assuring review by an institutional review or ethical board. Original Research Articles can include up to 7 Tables and/or Figures. While there is no limit to references, references should be as contemporary as possible and only essential references should be included.
Papers reporting the results of clinical trials may be submitted and should follow the format of original research articles.
Review Articles: Review articles which are topical and which are a critical assessment of any aspect of geriatric oncology may be submitted. Review articles should include an unstructured abstract [350 words]. They should not exceed 5,000 words in length.Review articles can include up to 7 Tables and/or Figures. While there is no limit to references, references should be as contemporary as possible and only essential references should be included.
Systematic reviews: Systematic Reviews with or without a meta-analyses are preferred over narrative reviews. These should include a structured abstract (350 words). They should not exceed 5,000 words in length. Systematic review articles can include up to 7 Tables and/or Figures. While there is no limit to references, references should be as contemporary as possible and only essential references should be included.
Systematic reviews, with or without a meta-analysis, MUST attach the completed checklist. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses that determine diagnostic accuracy should be reported according to QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy included in Systematic Reviews). It is recommended that all systematic reviews be registered a priori with PROSPERO.
Perspectives: Perspectives papers are invited or approved by the Editor-in-Chief. They are short communications in which individuals involved with the field of geriatric oncology comment on aspects of care or research which have shaped their thinking and their practice. Perspectives on scientific methods or approaches relevant to the field of geriatric oncology are encouraged.Perspectives papers do not have an abstract and are limited to 2000 words. References should be limited to 15 or less. Perspectives may include up to 2 Figures and/or Tables.
Meeting Reports: Reports on geriatric oncology conferences, meetings and workshops are welcomed, although authors are recommended to discuss their proposal first with the Editor-in-Chief. Meeting reports do not have an abstract and should not exceed 2,000 words in length. References should be limited to 15 or less. Meeting Reports may include up to 2 Figures and/or Tables.
Clinical Trial Protocol: Clinical trial protocols are considered as long as they focus on and have a strong clinical relevance to older adults with cancer. Clinical Trial Protocols should include a structured abstract (350 words) and should be divided into sections (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion).They should not exceed 5,000 words in length. Clinical Trial Protocol articles can include up to 7 Tables and/or Figures. While there is no limit to references, references should be as contemporary as possible and only essential references should be included. The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section.
Please note that your manuscript must include a 'Declarations' section including all of the subheadings (please see below for more information).
1) The title page should present a title that includes, if appropriate, the study design e.g.:"A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial", "X is a risk factor for Y: a case control study", "What is the impact of factor X on subject Y: A systematic review" or for non-clinical or non-research studies: a description of what the article reports
2) List the full names and institutional addresses for all authors. If a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the ?Acknowledgements? section in accordance with the instructions below
3) Indicate the corresponding author
Abstract: Clinical Trial Protocol manuscripts should include an unstructured abstract (350 words).
Trial registration: If your article reports the results of a health care intervention on human participants, it must be registered in an appropriate registry and the registration number and date of registration should be in stated in this section. If it was not registered prospectively (before enrollment of the first participant), you should include the words 'retrospectively registered'. See our editorial policies for more information on trial registration
Keywords: Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.
Background: The Background section should explain the background to the study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature and why this study is necessary or its contribution to the field.
The methods section should include:
1) The aim, design and setting of the study
2) The characteristics of participants or description of materials, a clear description of all processes, interventions and comparisons. Generic drug names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses
3) The type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate.
Discussion: The Discussion should highlight how the trial will improve current evidence and should consider methodologic/study design advanced for older adults with cancer. This should include a discussion of any practical or operational issues involved in performing the study and any issues not covered in other section.
Research Letters: Research letters of 1,500 words or less can provide a brief overview of original research. Research Letters should not include an abstract and should be divided into sections (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion). Research Letters should include data that has not been previously published. Research letters must include a statement assuring review by an institutional review or ethical board. Letters should include no more than 15 references, no more than 2 Tables or Figures, and should not include an abstract.
Letters to the Editor: Letters of 1,500 words or less which relate to previously published work from the Journal of Geriatric Oncology. If commenting on a previously published paper the Editor-in-Chief may choose to invite a reply from the authors of the paper on which the letter is commenting. Letters should include no more than 15 references, no more than 2 Tables or Figures, and should not include an abstract.
Case Reports: JGO does not publish Case Reports. You may consider submitting your case report to Current Problems in Cancer: Case Reports, a Journal which aims to fortify the field of oncology by publishing original case reports featuring prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, supportive care, quality of life and rehabilitation.
It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal's Editor for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present: •One author designated as corresponding author: E-mail address Full postal address •All necessary files have been uploaded •Keywords •All figure captions •All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Revised Submissions Please ensure when submitting revised work that the following items are included: •Ethical Statement: All manuscripts reporting on original research require a statement that an IRB/ ethics committee has reviewed it and that the research meets requirements for protection of human subjects. •Authorship Contribution •ICMJE Disclosure form
IMPORTANT: JGO requires authors to include a ICMJE form for ALL authors and an authorship contribution form when submitting revised work.
•The Journal of Geriatric Oncology prefers authors to reference in their paper the following terms:
"patients with cancer" rather than "cancer patients" "older patient with cancer" instead of "older cancer patient" "older patient with cancer" instead of "elderly cancer patient" "older patients" instead of "elderly"
More details are provided in the editorial by Lundebjerg, et al, When It Comes to Older Adults, Language Matters: JAGS Adopts Modified American Medical Association Style. J Am Geriatr Soc 65:1132-1133.
•Manuscript has been "spell-checked" and "grammar-checked" • Please include a comma for numbers 1,000 or 1,000,000 • Use the Oxford (Serial) comma when there is a list of three or more items (e.g., written as "dogs, cats, and pigs" as opposed to "dogs, cats and pigs") • Numbers that are less than 20 should be written (does not apply to tables, figures). • Use a maximum of 3 significant figures (i.e. p 0.001). • Prior to submitting please check that data described in the manuscript matches data in the Tables and Figures and that data in Tables and Figures is accurate. If there is missing data or data that is overlapping (for data that should add up to 100%), please note these numbers in the legend. • Please ensure that all Tables and Figures are referenced in the manuscript • Please ensure that all abbreviations are spelled out at first use. All abbreviations in Tables and Figures should be spelled out in a legend. •References are in the correct format for this journal •Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web) •Colour figures are clearly marked as being intended for colour reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in colour on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print •If only colour on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes •Conflict of interest and disclosures as well as author contributions have been provided at the end of the manuscript before the reference section. •For any further information please visit www.elsevier.com/authors.
Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
The Journal of Geriatric Oncology will consider manuscripts prepared according to the guidelines adopted by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ("Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals", available as a PDF from http://www.icmje.org). Authors are advised to read these guidelines.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection software iThenticate. See also: https://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail (or letter) will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult https://www.elsevier.com/permissions).
If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult https://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. More information.
Declaration of Interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.The corresponding author must submit a completed an Authorship Contribution Form and an ICMJE Disclosure Form with their submission on behalf of the author team. These forms enable the corresponding author to record the contribution of each author and disclose any potential or actual conflicts of interest that could influence, or be perceived to influence, the work. The forms must be signed in ink by the corresponding author, scanned, and uploaded to Editorial Manager with the manuscript.
Contributors Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be listed using the following headings, Conception and Design, Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation of Data, Manuscript Writing, Approval of Final Article. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
Reporting guidance For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.
Definitions Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.
Article Transfer Service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Submission by an editor
A paper submitted by an editor or board member (including submission as a co-author) will be handled by one of the other Senior Editors who will manage the peer review process. The Journal's submission system does not allow Editors to manage their own papers in the system.
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers (including retrospective studies and those from population databases) require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.
For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center.
List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.).
We accept most word processing formats, but Word, WordPerfect or LaTeX is preferred. Always keep a backup copy of the electronic file for reference and safety. Save your files using the default extension of the program used.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Italics are not to be used for expressions of Latin origin, for example, in vivo, et al., per se. Use decimal points (not commas); use a comma for thousands (1,000 and above).
Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit https://www.elsevier.com/languagepolishing for more information. Please note Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our Terms and Conditions https://www.elsevier.com/termsandconditions.
Presentation of the Manuscript:
Provide the following data on the title page (in the order given).
Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Twitter handle. If you would like your Twitter handle to be included on your published paper, please provide it on your title page.
Abstract. A concise and factual abstract of no more than 350 words is required. The abstract must be structured for original research articles, articles reporting the results of clinical trials, and short communications. The abstract should be divided by subheadings as follows: Introduction, Materials andMethods, Results and Discussion.
The abstract should not be structured for review articles. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.
Keywords. Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of ten keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Abbreviations. Define all abbreviations at their first occurrence in the article: in the abstract but also in the main text after it. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Subdivision of the article. Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply "the text."
Introduction. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Experimental/Materials and methods. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Results. Results should be clear and concise.
Discussion. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
Appendices. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: (Eq. A.1), (Eq. A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, (Eq. B.1) and so forth.
Conflict of interest. Please include all conflicts of interest and disclosures by author.
Author contributions. Please include all contributions by author. Acknowledgements. Place acknowledgements before the references, in a separate section, and not as a footnote on the title page.
Figure captions, tables, figures, schemes
. Present these at the end of the article. They are described in more detail below. High-resolution graphics files should be provided separate from the main text file (see Preparation of illustrations). Ideally tables should be embedded in the main document after references rather than uploaded as individual documents. Figures can either be embedded in the main file or attached separately.
Tables. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Nomenclature and units. Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.
Technical Information. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Identify appropriate scientific names and gene names.
Preparation of supplementary data. Elsevier accepts supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.
Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Examples: Reference to a journal publication: 1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372. Reference to a journal publication with an article number: 2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/j.heliyon.2018.e00205. Reference to a book: 3. Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000. Reference to a chapter in an edited book: 4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304. Reference to a website: 5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003]. Reference to a dataset: [dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1. Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34)(see also Samples of Formatted References).
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51-9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by "et al." For further details you are referred to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927-934) (see also http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/terms_cond.html) The digital object identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information.The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows (example taken from a document in the journal Physics Letters B): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071 When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web, they are guaranteed never to change.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Formatting of electronic illustrations
Make sure to use uniform lettering and sizing for all original artwork.
Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
Only use the following fonts in all illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
Use a logical naming convention for all artwork files.
Provide all illustrations as separate files and as hardcopy printouts on separate sheets. Provide captions to illustrations separately.
Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
Formats Regardless of the application used, when electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below.): EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics". TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required. DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is". Please do not:
Supply embedded graphics in word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
Supply files that are too low in resolution;
Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Line drawings The lettering and symbols, as well as other details, should have proportionate dimensions, so as not to become illegible or unclear after possible reduction; in general, the figures should be designed for a reduction factor of two to three. The degree of reduction will be determined by the Publisher. Illustrations will not be enlarged. Consider the page format of the journal when designing the illustrations. Do not use any type of shading on computer-generated illustrations.
Colour illustrations Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for colour in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Revised Manuscripts Following the peer-review process, the Editor-in-Chief may ask for a revised manuscript to be prepared and re-submitted to the journal. The Journal of Geriatric Oncology requires that authors upload two separate files of the revised manuscript: o One file with the changes that have been made to the manuscript highlighted in some way, either by text highlighting or by using the 'track changes' tool found in many word processing software, and; o One file which contains a 'clean copy' of the revised manuscript. Please note that this refers to the revised manuscript, but without any highlighting of the changes that have been made. If the revised manuscript is accepted for publication, this file will be used for production purposes. Authors are asked not to re-upload their original manuscript.
This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in Research Elements.
Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.
During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a Research Elements article.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
Data linking If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described. There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page . For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
Mendeley Data This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
Data statement To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page
Online proof correction
To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.