Cloninger's psychobiological model [
] measures individual differences in personality traits (both normal and pathological personalities) [
- Cloninger C.R.
The psychobiological theory of temperament and character: comment on Farmer and Goldberg.
Psychol Assess. 2008; 20: 292-299https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012933
- Cloninger C.R.
- Svrakic D.M.
- Przybeck T.R.
A psychobiological model of temperament and character.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50: 975-990https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820240059008
]. Temperamental traits are defined as individual differences that are presupposed to be independently inheritable, manifest in early life, and are related to emotion regulation and perception-based habits and skills. Temperamental traits are classified into four dimensions (Novelty-Seeking-NS, Harm-Avoidance-HA, Reward-Dependence-RD, Persistence-PS). Character dimensions are defined as individual differences in self-concepts, goals, and values, which develop during life through interpersonal and social experience and are classified into three dimensions (Self-Directedness-SD, Cooperativeness-C, Self-Transcendence-ST).
- Farmer R.F.
- Goldberg L.R.
A psychometric evaluation of the revised temperament and character inventory TCI-R and the TCI-140.
Psychol Assess. 2008; 20: 281-291https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012934
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- The psychobiological theory of temperament and character: comment on Farmer and Goldberg.Psychol Assess. 2008; 20: 292-299https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012933
- A psychobiological model of temperament and character.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50: 975-990https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820240059008
- A psychometric evaluation of the revised temperament and character inventory TCI-R and the TCI-140.Psychol Assess. 2008; 20: 281-291https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012934
- The psychometric properties of the TCI-140 in Hebrew.Eur J Psychol Assess. 2011; 27: 73-80https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000046
- Giarolli L reliability and validity of the Italian version of the temperament and character inventory-revised in an outpatient sample.Compr Psychiatry. 2007; 48: 380-387https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2007.02.003
- Psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the temperament and character inventory-revised, personality, psychopathology, and attachment styles.Compr Psychiatry. 2008; 49: 514-522https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2007.11.002
- The revised temperament and character inventory: normative data by sex and age from a Spanish normal randomized sample.PeerJ. 2015; 3e1481https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1481
- Genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger’s temperament and character dimensions.J Personal Disord. 2014; 18: 379-393https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.18.4.379.40345
- Validation of the Italian translation of the revised temperament and character inventory--TCI-140--in adult participants and in participants with medical diseases.Compr Psychiatry. 2015; 59: 129-134https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.12.006
- The use of structural analysis of social behaviour SASB as an assessment tool.Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2006; 2: 83-109https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095337
Published online: January 13, 2023
Accepted: December 6, 2022
Received in revised form: November 5, 2022
Received: July 14, 2022
© 2022 Published by Elsevier Ltd.